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Small Cars Must Rule ! Curb on diesel cars need implementation


In a recent leading News Paper I happened to read that the automobile companies in India have requested the Government to re-think on putting an extra excise tax on Diesel passenger vehicles, namely SUV‘s and other high to very high-end Cars using diesel. Their argument is its going to affect their economy, and moreover its just a tiny 1.56% of the total diesel driven automobiles!
 

I confess at the start that I am no Ivy league MBA and can’t crunch statistics like the big corporate boys do. But in my dim-wit brain I need someone to explain me that if the diesel cars construed only 1.5%  of the total, why the petition? And I start to think what is this argument of 1.5% ? A trillion can also have 1.5% of it and a million can also have a 1.5% but the formers tiny percent can be the whole of 100% + of the latter! So as someone had said long ago – ‘statistics is the best way to lie and win an argument’ holds true. The brilliant and well meaning automobile manufacturing managers  perhaps have the well-being of the poor employees in their mind when they attempt to  protect the assembly line from closing down. So I will not hold it against them. But by increasing the demand of passenger cars which would be belching fossil fuel fumes especially more carbon–Di–oxide  is causing a disservice to the Nation. (http://www.diffen.com/difference/Diesel_vs_Petrol.)

However, I must  advocate for Clean technologies as it is the only way to abate Climate Change. I would also ask the big diesel car advocates to read the Stern Review and the SREX report of IPCC.  It is time that corporates and governments but most importantly the Citizens of the country start to understand that we have a very limited time to turn the tide against climate change. For we enter the Orange line for danger from 2017!

Diesel is understood to give more mileage and more efficient that petrol. But in India all may not be using the high-end diesel which is taking care of NOx which is a cause of concern from the pollution angle. Moreover once the public see that the price of fuel is cheaper the demand for diesel cars would shoot up. The price of diesel is cheaper in India because the Government offers a bigger subsidy on it than Petrol. As long as the public keep on demanding for “cheaper fuel” for their very big and costly cars, the automakers can not be put to fault. And as long as the Government of the day continues to buy the corporates argument, the public can not be held responsible. It is a wonder how easily in any argument we create demarcations – Government – Public – Automakers and forget that all are at the end citizens of a responsible Nation which should be at the fore-front to abate climate change.

All nations are facing the problem of balancing between the centuries old “industrial revolution” life-style which hyper-jumped on the back of fossil fuel to device a cleaner and more sustainable life-style without compromising on the creäture comfort we all have grown up with.  This can only happen if for once  these very best of India, the brilliant Corporate minds along with learned Citizens from various fields come together and devise a solution. Each in his/her personal capacity must break free from the chains of the company’s profit graph and attempt to create a level playing field in which bio-fuel driven or solar-driven or hybrid cars can create a viable alternative to the popular and practical cars of today.

And having done that, they should learn from the real experiences on the city roads of India and devise a plan to create superb SMALL passenger cars! And through their glib marketing and advertisement pamper the ego of the feudal minded ‘upper class’ that small is the new ‘BIG’!

Moreover, the super rich who buy big cars & suv’s with the argument that their large family would travel in comfort when they holiday usually have cars for each individual member or when holidaying they fly to Europe or other exotic destinations, leaving their large cars behind.

Let us see how is the Developed nations fairing in this – the EU’s voluntary agreements with motor manufacturers and the introduction of colour-coded CO2 labels in showrooms, the UK Government has introduced financial measures to favour cars with lower CO2 emissions.

Since March 2001 the annual Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) rate for new cars has been determined by their CO2 emission figure and the type of fuel used. This banding is linked to the voluntary colour coded CO2 A – G labelling scheme. Band ‘G’ was recently introduced but only applies to new cars registered on or after 23 March 2006. VED discounts are available for alternatively fuelled cars, e.g. hybrids, gas and biofuels.

Since 2002 company car drivers have been taxed according to their vehicle’s CO2 emissions and fuel type, again with diesel vehicles paying a tax penalty over petrol vehicles with similar CO2 emissions. Tax discounts are available for drivers choosing bio-fuel and hybrid electric vehicles.

On the fuels side, a Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation has been introduced which requires 5% of road fuels to come from a renewable source by 2010. This may be sold as a separate fuel (e.g. ‘E85’) or blended into normal diesel and petrol at low percentages (5% or less).

The European Union has now agreed a mandatory CO2 target for car manufactures. Under this legislation the average emissions of a manufacture’s vehicles sold in Europe will have to be below 130 grams of CO2 per kilometre by 2015.

In my opinion Small cars must rule ! Because –

It is easier to engineer a smaller and lighter vehicle to run at a decent  speed through alternate Eco-friendly fuel. And even petrol driven small cars can be more economical mileage wise, so demand for diesel car would reduce.

Almost 60% of the commuters are lone passengers who drive or are driven around on a daily basis so large cars belching diesel fumes are not really required.

Moreover although the diesel cars would be a percentage of the above 60% , a small statistical number but a HUGE difference in the abatement of Co2e. Because that small number of cars need to fill gas, read diesel – which need not be that small in measure.

Lastly, big SUV’s and large passenger cars  are not only big in size, they are heavier too. As any one who has plied on roads frequented by heavy vehicles would know – the roads wear out faster !

And what do we lay our roads with – Bitumen! A derivative of the most feared substance in terms of Climate Change –  A black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation!

The articles that started the arguments (http://epaper.dnaindia.com/epapermain.aspx?pgNo=15&edcode=820009&eddate=2012-01-20) ( http://www.outlookindia.com/printarticle.aspx?279625 )

 
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Posted by on January 22, 2012 in Green House Gas, My Thoughts

 

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Trade & Climate Change: Clean Development Mechanism in SME Sector can reduce exposure and vulnerability to weather and climate events.


The Small & Medium Enterprise and Business in many Countries play a vital role in the growth of the Nation. It is a fountain of creative ideas of which many have made it big over time, World over. It is one of the most dynamic part of a countries growth as it more often than not linked directly at the grass root level.

As per the Small & Medium Business Development Chamber of India;

The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role for the growth of Indian economy by contributing 45% of industrial output, 40% of exports, employing 60 million people, create 1.3 million jobs every year and produce more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets. SME’s Contribution towards GDP in 2011 was 17% which is expected to increase to 22% by 2012. There are approximately 30 million MSME Units in India and 12 million persons are expected to join the workforce in the next 3 years. SMEs are the fountain head of several innovations in manufacturing and service sectors, the major link in the supply chain to corporate and the PSUs. The Indian market is growing rapidly and Indian entrepreneurs are making remarkable progress in various Industries like Manufacturing, Precision Engineering Design, Food Processing, Pharmaceutical, Textile & Garments, Retail, IT and ITES, Agro and Service sector.

Greenhouse Effect

If one just looks at the scale, it could be well understood the potential it has in terms of creating a sea-change in the quest for reduction of GHG and thereby reduce the Green House Effect, provided it is given the support and attention it deserves.

The UNFCCC COP-17 meet at Durban has underscored the need to move at a faster pace in the Worlds effort to abate Global Warming & Climate. The IPCC‘s  report examines how disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change can reduce exposure and vulnerability to weather and climate events and thus reduce disaster risk, as well as increase resilience to the risks that cannot be eliminated.

The IPCC’s special report states under DISASTER LOSSES which would come about due to extreme weather events caused by Global Warming,  four major points;

1.Economic losses from weather and climate-related disasters have increased, but with large spatial and inter-annual variability (high confidence, based on high agreement, medium evidence).

2.Economic, including insured, disaster losses associated with weather, climate, and geophysical events 4 are higher in developed countries. Fatality rates and economic losses expressed as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries (high confidence).

3.Increasing exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of the long-term increases in economic losses from weather and climate-related disasters (high confidence).

4.Long-term trends in economic disaster losses adjusted for wealth and

population increases have not been attributed to climate change, but a role for climate change has not been excluded (medium evidence, high agreement).

Although it is argued that large corporations have a greater responsibility to respond to the challenges of Global warming it must be noted that they are in many cases moving positively in that direction. It can be safely argued that for large corporations, changing the process is time consuming principally due to its size and no quick turn around is possible. Further they require much more assistance both technically and financially to do so viably.

But the problem of Climate Change being of humongous proportion, the effort on ground as of now need more participation. This is where, I would like to point the direction towards SME’s. Typically in India, the SME sector can be further subdivided as:

Manufacturing Enterprises – Investment in Plant & Machinery

Description                                                                       USD($)

Micro Enterprises                                                upto $ 62,500

Small Enterprises                                         $ 62,500 & upto $ 1.25 million

Medium Enterprises                  above $ 1.25 million & upto $ 2.5 million

Service Enterprises – Investment in Equipments

Description                                                                      USD($)

Micro Enterprises                                                  upto $ 25,000

Small Enterprises                            above $ 25,000 & upto $ 0.5 million

Medium Enterprises                   above $ 0.5 million & upto $ 1.5 million

In India, the SMEs are spread thin. Wherever clustering approach has been developed, and organizations like UNIDO have brought technology transfer and support to clusters, they have seen to embark on an improved profitability and competitiveness route. There are more than 8 million SMEs in India today – small companies that churn out auto components or electronic parts, garments, etc. – making manufacturing the biggest engine for job creation in our economy, and contribute to 60 per cent of India’s exports. About 40 million workers are employed by the manufacturing sector, as per the National Sample Survey 2000.

 These are big numbers, with the latent potential to grow bigger, and signify one thing clearly: the SME sector can play a crucial role in the economic growth of India. Conversely it also means that it has the potential to spew enormous amount of GHG( Green House Gas). Moreover the SME sector, which by default is set up in the fringe districts of any city, faces acute electricity and water shortages. Sometimes both and at times mostly electricity. This hampers productivity. And also creates space for using diesel power generating system which are a prime source for GHG emission. This, in the present Global concern towards Climate change, would act as an impediment for favorable negotiations for India post 2012. These negotiations would begin for framing the new convention which would take over form the present Climate Change Treaty, the world follows – the Kyoto Protocol.  The second crediting period of the KP would be over by 2015 and as the world is teetering towards Global Warming of enormous proportions, the rewards and punishment for helping or not helping in its mitigation would be huge. In the last meet of the 194 member states of the UN at Durban, a $ 100 Billion per year Green Climate Fund by  A.D 2020 has been agreed upon.

 As globalization is increasing and competition is becoming more vigorous there is increased  awareness amongst all stake holders that Climate Change is a potential risk to business and its mitigation is an absolute necessity. The risks have already been mentioned in the paragraphs above. Now to succeed in a competitive environment, which is also in the midst of a Global Economic slowdown, the manufacturing sector has to adopt some best practices and embrace some new age tools. One of the key differentiators can be Sustainable Design & Renewable Energy Technology and its wide adoption by Indian SMEs, which can play a significant part in enhancing their competitiveness on the world stage.

 Further India is one of the emerging economy on whom the world is focusing along with other BASIC Nations (Brazil; South Africa; India; China) to support the climate change initiative taken up in the recently concluded UNFCCC’s  COP-17 at Durban South Africa; it is imperative for the Nation to look into and address the GHG abatement potential across the SME sector. Else it would be put into disadvantage in future negotiations set to take place for a new framework convention beyond 2015, when the Kyoto Protocol part -II is set to end. These negotiations are set to take place from 2012 onwards and culminate towards Rio+20, the UNFCCC’s COP 18, scheduled in Brazil this year. India has however the National Action Plan for Climate Change( NAPCC) in place which has Eight Mission programs, and some of them are operational as of now. Amongst them the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency(NMEEE) covering Nine  industrial sectors must be adopted by the SME sector too and its scope increased to include more sectors.

 Now what would be the process and advantage for the SME to look at the Energy Efficient Building & Renewable Energy Technology, otherwise known as Green of Clean technology? For starters, one must adopt the guidelines given under the two Green Building rating system prevalent in India. The National GRIHA (Green Rating  for Integrated Habitat Assessment) and the IGBC ( Indian Green Building Council ). These are guided by the prestigious The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) and the later by the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). Under the IGBC we have guidelines both for retro-fit as well as new industries , namely the ” Green Co” and the “Green Factory” rating system.  As to the advantages, primer companies such as Wipro, Godrej, Larsen & Toubro, GE, JSW and many others industrial sectors  have adopted the systems across its various rating system and have found favorable variations in there CAPEX & OPEX, but what is most important in this discussion is that there is a significant reduction to the GHG, as much as 20%.

 Having said that, to make the SME sector adapt to new age technology, the various associations for SME should petition both State & Central Government to create favorable Credit policy for them.  The SME sector mostly does not seek any grant or subsidy and industrious enough to pull through with its own resources, however Credit for expansion or setting up a new venture for this sector is hard to come by, principally because most do not have the wherewithal to afford big consultation or credit rating companies, which could facilitate and guide them to become Credit worthy in terms of banking rules. There needs to be some thought on this.

Courtesy: For data on SME’s – Rajiv Sodhi in http://www.i4donline.net  & the SME Chamber of India www.smechamberofindia.com

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Sustainable Development is urgent : IPCC’s special report on Climate risks


The Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation ( SREX ) has been submitted as an advance report before a full comprehensive report on effects of Global Warming is published in 2012.

There are many approaches and pathways to a sustainable and resilient future.  However, limits to resilience are faced when thresholds or tipping points associated with social and/or natural systems are exceeded, posing severe challenges to adaptation. This Guidance Note refines the guidance provided to support the IPCC Third and Fourth Assessment Reports.

OBSERVATIONS OF EXPOSURE, VULNERABILITY, CLIMATE EXTREMES, IMPACTS, AND DISASTER LOSSES:

This report integrates perspectives from several historically distinct research communities studying climate science, climate impacts, adaptation to climate change, and disaster risk management. Each community brings different viewpoints, vocabularies, approaches, and goals, and all provide important insights into the status of the knowledge base and its gaps. Many of the key assessment findings come from the interfaces among these communities.

The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal
functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development.

The report examines how disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change can reduce exposure and vulnerability to weather and climate events and thus reduce disaster risk, as well as increase resilience to the risks that cannot be eliminated.

Other important processes are largely outside the scope of this report, including the influence of development on greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential for mitigation of anthropogenic climate change.

The following terms have been used  by IPCC to indicate the assessed likelihood:
Term* Likelihood of the outcome –
Virtually certain 99-100% probability; Very likely 90-100% probability;
Likely 66-100% probability; About as likely as not 33 to 66% probability;
Unlikely 0-33% probability; Very unlikely 0-10% probability;
Exceptionally unlikely 0-1% probability
* Additional terms that were used in limited circumstances in the AR4 (extremely likely – 95- 100% probability, more likely than not – >50-100% probability, and extremely unlikely – 0-5% probability) may also be used when appropriate.

EXPOSURE AND VULNERABILITY
1.Exposure and vulnerability are dynamic, varying across temporal and spatial scales, and depend on economic, social, geographic, demographic, cultural, institutional, governance, and environmental factors (high confidence).

2.Settlement patterns, urbanization, and changes in socioeconomic conditions have all influenced observed trends in exposure and vulnerability to climate extremes (high confidence).

DISASTER LOSSES
1.Economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters have increased, but with large spatial and interannual variability (high confidence, based on high agreement, medium evidence).

2.Economic, including insured, disaster losses associated with weather, climate, and geophysical events4 are higher in developed countries. Fatality rates and economic losses expressed as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries (high confidence).

3.Increasing exposure of people and economic assets has been the major cause of the long-term increases in economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters (high confidence).

4.Long-term trends in economic disaster losses adjusted for wealth and
population increases have not been attributed to climate change, but a role for climate change has not been excluded (medium evidence, high agreement).

CLIMATE EXTREMES AND IMPACTS
There is evidence from observations gathered since 1950 of change in some extremes.

1.There has been an overall decrease in the number of cold days and nights,
and an overall increase in the number of warm days and nights, on the global scale, i.e., for most land areas with sufficient data. ( very likely )

2.These changes have also occurred at the continental scale in North America, Europe, and Australia. ( likely )

3.There is a warming trend in daily temperature extremes in much of Asia, Africa and South America. ( medium confidence to low confidence )

4. In many (but not all) regions over the globe with sufficient data, the length or number of warm spells, or heat waves, has increased. ( medium confidence )

5.There have been statistically significant trends in the number of heavy precipitation events in some regions. More of these regions have experienced increases than decreases, although there are strong regional and subregional variations in these trends. ( likely )

6. In any observed long-term (i.e., 40 years or more) increases in tropical
cyclone activity (i.e., intensity, frequency, duration), after accounting for past changes in observing capabilities. ( low confidence )

7.There has been a poleward shift in the main Northern and Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical storm tracks ( likely )

8. Some regions of the world have experienced more intense and longer droughts, in particular in southern Europe and West Africa, but in some regions droughts have become less frequent, less intense, or shorter, e.g., in central North America and northwestern Australia. ( medium confidence )

9. Climate-driven observed changes in the magnitude and frequency of floods at regional scales ( limited to medium evidence; low agreement to low confidence)

10.There has been an increase in extreme coastal high water related to increases in mean sea level. ( likely)

HUMAN IMPACTS AND DISASTER LOSSES
1.Extreme events will have greater impacts on sectors with closer links to climate, such as water, agriculture and food security, forestry, health, and tourism. (high confidence)

2. In many regions, the main drivers for future increases in economic losses due to some climate extremes will be socioeconomic in nature (medium confidence, based on medium agreement, limited evidence).

3.Increases in exposure will result in higher direct economic losses from tropical cyclones. Losses will also depend on future changes in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity (high confidence).

4. Disasters associated with climate extremes influence population mobility and relocation, affecting host and origin communities (medium agreement, medium evidence).

DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: PAST EXPERIENCE WITH CLIMATE EXTREMES

1.The severity of the impacts of climate extremes depends strongly on the level of the exposure and vulnerability to these extremes (high confidence).

2. Trends in exposure and vulnerability are major drivers of changes in disaster risk (high confidence).

3. Development practice, policy, and outcomes are critical to shaping disaster risk, which may be increased by shortcomings in development (high confidence)

4. Data on disasters and disaster risk reduction are lacking at the local level, which can constrain improvements in local vulnerability reduction (high agreement, medium evidence).

5. Inequalities influence local coping and adaptive capacity, and pose disaster risk management and adaptation challenges from the local to national levels (high agreement,robust evidence).

6. Humanitarian relief is often required when disaster risk reduction measures are absent or inadequate (high agreement, robust evidence).

7. Post-disaster recovery and reconstruction provide an opportunity for reducing weather and climate-related disaster risk and for improving adaptive capacity (high agreement, robust evidence).

8. Risk sharing and transfer mechanisms at local, national, regional, and global scales can increase resilience to climate extremes (medium confidence).

9. Attention to the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability is particularly important given that the design and implementation of adaptation and disaster risk management strategies and policies can reduce risk in the short-term, but may increase exposure and vulnerability over the longer term (high agreement, medium evidence).

10. National systems are at the core of countries’ capacity to meet the challenges of observed and projected trends in exposure, vulnerability, and weather and climate extremes (high agreement, robust evidence).

11. Closer integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation, along with the incorporation of both into local, subnational, national, and international development policies and practices, could provide benefits at all scales (high agreement, medium evidence).

FUTURE CLIMATE EXTREMES, IMPACTS, AND DISASTER LOSSES
Future changes in exposure, vulnerability, and climate extremes resulting from natural climate variability, anthropogenic climate change, and socioeconomic development can alter the impacts of climate extremes on natural and human systems and the potential for disasters.

Models project substantial warming in temperature extremes by the end of the 21st century.

It is virtually certain that increases in the frequency and magnitude of warm daily temperature extremes and decreases in cold extremes will occur in the 21st century on the global scale. It is very likely that the length, frequency and/or intensity of warm spells, or heat waves, will increase over most land areas.

Heavy rainfalls associated with tropical cyclones are likely to increase with continued warming. Average tropical cyclone maximum wind speed is likely to increase, although increases may not occur in all ocean basins. It is likely that the global frequency of tropical cyclones will either decrease or remain essentially unchanged.

There is medium confidence that droughts will intensify in the 21st century in some seasons and areas, due to reduced precipitation and/or increased evaporate-transpiration. Projected precipitation and temperature changes imply possible changes in floods, although overall there is low confidence in projections of changes in fluvial floods.

It is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels in the future. There is high confidence that locations currently experiencing adverse impacts such as coastal erosion and inundation will continue to do so in the future due to increasing sea levels, all other contributing factors being equal.

There is high confidence that changes in heat waves, glacial retreat and/or permafrost degradation will affect high mountain phenomena such as slope instabilities, movements of mass, and glacial lake outburst floods. There is also high confidence that changes in heavy precipitation will affect landslides in some regions.

There is low confidence in projections of changes in large-scale patterns of natural climate variability.

MANAGING CHANGING RISKS OF CLIMATE EXTREMES AND DISASTERS

1.Measures that provide benefits under current climate and a range of future climate change scenarios, called low-regrets measures, are available starting points for addressing projected trends in exposure, vulnerability, and climate extremes. They have the potential to offer benefits now and lay the foundation for addressing projected changes (high agreement, medium evidence).

2. Effective risk management generally involves a portfolio of actions to reduce and transfer risk and to respond to events and disasters, as opposed to a singular focus on any one action or type of action (high confidence).

3. Multi-hazard risk management approaches provide opportunities to reduce complex and compound hazards (high agreement, robust evidence).

4. Opportunities exist to create synergies in international finance for disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change, but these have not yet been fully realized (high confidence).

5. Stronger efforts at the international level do not necessarily lead to substantive and rapid results at the local level (high confidence).

6. Integration of local knowledge with additional scientific and technical knowledge can improve disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation (high agreement, robust evidence).

7. Appropriate and timely risk communication is critical for effective adaptation and disaster risk management (high confidence).

8. An iterative process of monitoring, research, evaluation, learning, and innovation can reduce disaster risk and promote adaptive management in the context of climate extremes (high agreement, robust evidence).

IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

A. Actions that range from incremental steps to transformational changes are essential for reducing risk from climate extremes (high agreement, robust evidence).

B. Social, economic, and environmental sustainability can be enhanced by disaster risk management and adaptation approaches. A prerequisite for sustainability in the context of climate change is addressing the underlying causes of vulnerability, including the structural inequalities that create and sustain poverty and constrain access to resources.  (medium agreement, robust evidence).

C. The most effective adaptation and disaster risk reduction actions are those that offer development benefits in the relatively near term, as well as reductions in vulnerability over the longer-term(high agreement, medium evidence).

D. Progress towards resilient and sustainable development in the context of changing climate extremes can benefit from questioning assumptions and paradigms and stimulating innovation to encourage new patterns of response (medium agreement, robust evidence).

E. The interactions among climate change mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk management may have a major influence on resilient and sustainable pathways (high agreement, limited evidence).

It is to be noted that direct comparisons between assessment of uncertainties in findings in this report and those in the IPCC AR4 are difficult if not impossible, because of the application of the revised guidance note on uncertainties, as well as the availability of new information, improved scientific understanding, continued analyses of data and models,and specific differences in methodologies applied in the assessed studies. For some extremes, different aspects have been
assessed and therefore a direct comparison would be inappropriate.

Meaning of Terms used in the report –

Climate Change: A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use

Climate Extreme (extreme weather or climate event): The occurrence of a value of a weather or climate variable above (or below) a threshold value near the upper (or lower) ends of the range of observed values of the variable.

Exposure: The presence of people, livelihoods, environmental services and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets, in places that could be adversely affected.

Vulnerability: The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected.

Disaster: Severe alterations in the normal functioning of a community or a society due to hazardous physical events interacting with vulnerable social conditions, leading to widespread adverse human, material, economic, or environmental effects that require immediate emergency response to satisfy critical human needs and that may require external support for recovery.

Disaster Risk: The likelihood over a specified time period of severe alterations in the normal functioning of a community or a society due to hazardous physical events interacting with vulnerable social conditions, leading to widespread adverse human, material, economic, or environmental effects that require immediate emergency response to satisfy critical human needs
and that may require external support for recovery.

Disaster Risk Management: Processes for designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies, policies, and measures to improve the understanding of disaster risk, foster disaster risk reduction and transfer, and promote continuous improvement in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery practices, with the explicit purpose of increasing human security, well-being,
quality of life, resilience, and sustainable development.

Adaptation: In human systems, the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects; human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate.

Resilience: The ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover from the effects of a hazardous event in a timely and efficient manner, including through ensuring the preservation, restoration, or improvement of its essential basic structures and functions.

Transformation: The altering of fundamental attributes of a system (including value systems; regulatory, legislative, or bureaucratic regimes; financial institutions; and technological or biological systems).

Courtesy: IPCC SREX Summary for Policymakers; 18 November 2011.

 

 

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